- Application Development
Oracle Application Express
Backup and Recovery
new features in this release that provide improvements in the area of backup and recovery.
Automatic Block Repair
Automatic block repair allows corrupt blocks on the primary database or physical standby database to be automatically repaired, as soon as they are detected, by transferring good blocks from the other destination. In addition, RECOVER BLOCK is enhanced to restore blocks from a physical standby database. The physical standby database must be in real-time query mode. This feature reduces time when production data cannot be accessed, due to block corruption, by automatically repairing the corruptions as soon as they are detected in real-time using good blocks from a physical standby database. This reduces block recovery time by using up-to-date good blocks from a real-time, synchronized physical standby database as opposed to disk or tape backups or flashback logs.
Backup to Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) Using OSB Cloud Computing
Oracle now offers backup to Amazon S3, an internet-based storage service, with the Oracle Secure Backup (OSB) Cloud Module. This is part of the Oracle Cloud Computing offering. This feature provides easy-to-manage, low cost database backup to Web services storage, reducing or eliminating the cost and time to manage an in-house backup infrastructure.
DUPLICATE Without Connection to Target Database
DUPLICATE can be performed without connecting to a target database. This requires connecting to a catalog and auxiliary database. The benefit is improved availability of a DUPLICATE operation by not requiring connection to a target database. This is particularly useful for DUPLICATE to a destination database where connection to the target database may not be available at all times.
Enhanced Tablespace Point-In-Time Recovery (TSPITR)
Tablespace point-in-time recovery (TSPITR) is enhanced as follows: You now have the ability to recover a dropped tablespace. TSPITR can be repeated multiple times for the same tablespace. Previously, once a tablespace had been recovered to an earlier point-in-time, it could not be recovered to another earlier point-in-time. DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK is automatically run to ensure that TSPITR is successful. AUXNAME is no longer used for recovery set data files.
New DUPLICATE Options
NOREDO indicates that archive logs are not applied. Because targetless DUPLICATE does not connect to the target database, it cannot check if the database is running in NOARCHIVELOG mode. It can also be used during regular duplication to force a database currently in ARCHIVELOG mode to be recovered without applying archive logs (for example, because it was in NOARCHIVELOG mode at the point-in-time it is being duplicated). UNDO TABLESPACE [ , ... ] When not connected to a recovery catalog and not connected to an open target database, RMAN cannot obtain the list of tablespaces with undo segments, therefore, you must specify them with this clause.
New SET NEWNAME Clauses and Format Options
A single SET NEWNAME command can be applied to all files in a tablespace, or for all files in the database. For example: SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE TO ; Or, SET NEWNAME FOR DATABASE TO ; New format identifiers for SET NEWNAME... are as follows: %U Unique identifier. data_D-%d_I-%I_TS-%N_FNO-%f %b UNIX base name of the original data file name. For example, if the original data file name was ORACLE_HOME/data/tbs_01.f, then %b is tbs_01.f. The benefit is improved flexibility of RESTORE, DUPLICATE, and TSPITR.
Tablespace Checks in DUPLICATE
The DUPLICATE...TABLESPACE and DUPLICATE... SKIP TABLESPACE commands now perform the following initial checks: Excluded tablespaces are checked to see if they contain any objects owned by SYS. DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK is run to ensure that the set of tablespaces being duplicated are self-contained before the actual duplicate process. These checks are not possible for a targetless DUPLICATE as they are required to be run at the target database. This feature improves usability of DUPLICATE. Any tablespace issues are immediately identified prior to commencement of the actual duplicate operation.
Online Application Maintenance and Upgrade
Large, mission critical applications are often unavailable for long periods of time while database objects are patched or upgraded. Edition-based redefinition allows this cost to be avoided.
Enhance CREATE or REPLACE TYPE to Allow FORCE
The FORCE option can now be used in conjunction with the CREATE or REPLACE TYPE command.
Fine-Grained Dependencies for Triggers
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) brought both fine-grained dependency tracking and the new possibility that a trigger might be a dependency parent by virtue of the new FOLLOWS keyword. In release 11.1, dependents on triggers did not have fine-grained dependency. In release 11.2, this fine-grained dependence exists. (Release 11.2 also provides the new PRECEDES keyword which also allows trigger-upon-trigger dependencies.)
IGNORE_ROW_ON_DUPKEY_INDEX Hint for INSERT Statement
With INSERT INTO TARGET...SELECT...FROM SOURCE, a unique key for some to-be-inserted rows may collide with existing rows. The IGNORE_ROW_ON_DUPKEY_INDEX allows the collisions to be silently ignored and the non-colliding rows to be inserted. A PL/SQL program could achieve the same effect by first selecting the source rows and by then inserting them one-by-one into the target in a block that has a null handler for the DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX exception. However, the PL/SQL approach would take effort to program and is much slower than the single SQL statement that this hint allows. This hint improves performance and ease-of-programming when implementing an online application upgrade script using edition-based redefinition.
Oracle Data Guard
Compressed Table Support in Logical Standby Databases and Oracle LogMiner
Compressed tables (that is, tables with compression that support both OLTP and direct load operations) are supported in logical standby databases and Oracle LogMiner. With support for this additional storage attribute, logical standby databases can now provide data protection and reporting benefits for a wider range of tables
Configurable Real-Time Query Apply Lag Limit
A physical standby database can be open for read-only access while redo apply is active only if the Oracle Active Data Guard option is enabled. This capability is known as real-time query. The new STANDBY_MAX_DATA_DELAY session parameter can be used to specify a session-specific apply lag tolerance, measured in seconds, for queries issued by non-administrative users to a physical standby database that is in real-time query mode. This capability allows queries to be safely offloaded from the primary database to a physical standby database, because it is possible to detect if the standby database has become unacceptably stale.
Integrated Support for Application Failover in a Data Guard Configuration
Applications connected to a primary database can transparently failover to the new primary database upon an Oracle Data Guard role transition. Integration with Fast Application Notification (FAN) provides fast failover for integrated clients. Flexibility and manageability of disaster recovery configurations using Oracle Data Guard is improved.
Support Up to 30 Standby Databases
The number of standby databases that a primary database can support is increased from 9 to 30 in this release. The capability to create 30 standby databases, combined with the functionality of the Oracle Active Data Guard option, allows the creation of reader farms that can be used to offload large scale read-only workloads from a production database.
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
Analytic Functions 2.0
A new ordered aggregate, LISTAGG, concatenates the values of the measure column. The new analytic window function NTH_VALUE (a generalization of existing FIRST_VALUE and LAST_VALUE functions) gives users the functionality of retrieving an arbitrary (or nth) record in a window. The LAG and LEAD functions are enhanced with the IGNORE NULLS option.
Recursive WITH Clause
The SQL WITH clause has been extended to enable formulation of recursive queries. Recursive WITH clause complies with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard. This makes Oracle ANSI-compatible for recursive queries.
Improved Data Loading
EXECUTE Privilege for DIRECTORY Objects
Preprocessing Data for ORACLE_LOADER Access Driver in External Tables
Allow Virtual Columns in the Primary Key or Foreign Key for Reference Partitioning
Virtual columns can be used as the primary or the foreign key column of a reference partition table. Allowing the use of virtual columns for reference partitioned tables enables an easier implementation of various business scenarios using Oracle Partitioning.
System-Managed Indexes for List Partitioning
System-managed domain indexes are now supported for list partitioned tables. This feature provides enhanced completeness of domain-specific indexing support for partitioning to meet user requirements including Oracle XML DB. Performance of local domain indexes on list partitioned tables is improved in this release.
Improved Performance and Scalability
In-Memory Parallel Execution
Minimal Effort Parallel Execution – Auto Degree of Parallelism (DOP) and Queuing
The DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE Package
Significant Performance Improvement of On-Commit Fast Refresh
Oracle Real Application Clusters Ease-of-Use
Configuration Assistants Support New Oracle RAC Features
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA), and Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) have been updated to support all of the new features of this release and provide a best practice implementation. Configuration Assistants automate the configuration of the environment ensuring the correct steps are taken. The assistants simplify the implementation of clusters and clustered databases.
Enhanced Cluster Verification Utility
Additional functionality has been added to the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) in regard to checking certain storage types and configurations. Furthermore, it gives more consideration to user-specific settings. These enhancements provide easier implementation and configuration of cluster environments and improved problem diagnostics in a cluster environment.
Integration of Cluster Verification Utility and Oracle Universal Installer
The Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) is now fully integrated with the installer so that checks are done automatically for all nodes included in the installation. This integration improves Oracle RAC manageability and deployment by ensuring that any problems with cluster setup are detected and corrected prior to installing Oracle software.
Cluster Time Service
The Cluster Time Service synchronizes the system time on all nodes in the cluster. A synchronized system time across the cluster is a prerequisite to install and successfully run an Oracle cluster. This feature simplifies management, maintenance, and support of an Oracle cluster and an Oracle RAC environment by providing an out-of-the-box time server. It also improves the reliability of Oracle RAC environments.
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) Enhancements
There have been improvements in this release in the way the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) is accessed. These improvements include: Faster relocation of services on node failure. Support for up to 5 copies of the OCR for improved availability of the cluster. Storage of OCR in Automatic Storage Management (ASM). The tools to manage the OCR have changed to support the new management options. These enhancements improve performance in Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters environments and provide easier management of the cluster through consistent storage management automation
Grid Plug and Play (GPnP)
Grid Plug and Play (GPnP) eliminates per-node configuration data and the need for explicit add and delete nodes steps. This allows a system administrator to take a template system image and run it on a new node with no further configuration. This removes many manual operations, reduces the opportunity for errors, and encourages configurations that can be changed easily. Removal of the per-node configuration makes the nodes easier to replace, because they do not need to contain individually-managed state. Grid Plug and Play reduces the cost of installing, configuring, and managing database nodes by making their per-node state disposable. It allows nodes to be easily replaced with regenerated state.
Oracle Restart improves the availability of your single-instance Oracle database. Oracle Restart automatically restarts the database instance, the Automatic Storage Management (ASM) instance, the listener, and other components after a hardware or software failure or whenever your database host computer restarts. Server Control (SRVCTL) is the command line interface to manage Oracle processes that are managed by Oracle Restart on a standalone server. This feature provides improved reliability and automated management of a single-instance Oracle database and the management of any process or application running on the database server.
Policy-Based Cluster and Capacity Management
Oracle Clusterware allocates and reassigns capacity based on policies defined by you. This enables faster resource failover and dynamic capacity assignment using a policy-based management. Policy-Based Cluster and Capacity Management allows the efficient allocation of all kinds of applications in the cluster. Various applications can be hosted on a shared infrastructure being isolated regarding their resource consumption by policies and, therefore, behave as if they were deployed in single system environments.
Improved Clusterware Resource Modeling
In this release, there are now more options for managing all types of applications and creating dependencies among them using Oracle Clusterware. Improved Clusterware Resource Modeling enables a granular definition of dependencies among applications or processes to manage them as one entity.
Role-separated management allows multiple applications and databases to share the same cluster and hardware resources, but ensures that different administration groups do not interfere with each other.
Agent Development Framework
Oracle Clusterware provides an agent framework for managing all kinds of applications with Oracle Clusterware. Using the agent framework provides optimized application startup, checking, and stopping based on user-defined scripts. Making it easy to protect applications with Oracle Clusterware reduces costs allowing you to efficiently enable high availability for applications.
Zero Downtime Patching for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC
The patching of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters can now be completed without taking the entire cluster down. Patchsets are now installed as out-of-place upgrades to the Oracle Grid infrastructure for a cluster software (Oracle Clusterware and Automatic Storage Management) and Oracle Database. Now you can reduce your unplanned downtime of clustered databases and applications running in a cluster.
Enterprise Manager-Based Clusterware Resource Management
Enterprise Manager Provisioning for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Enterprise Manager Support for Grid Plug and Play
Enterprise Manager Support for Oracle Restart
Configuration Assistant Support for Removing Oracle RAC Installations
Improved Deinstallation Support With Oracle Universal Installer
Downgrading Database Configured With DBControl
Oracle Restart Integration with Oracle Universal Installer
Oracle Restart requires a separate installation from Oracle Database. This installation is the Oracle Grid infrastructure for a cluster installation for standalone servers which includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM). This allows separation of roles such that the system administrator can manage the infrastructure and the database administrator can manage the database.
Out-of-Place Oracle Clusterware Upgrade
A new version of Oracle Clusterware is now installed into a separate home from the current installation. This reduces the downtime required to upgrade a node in the cluster and facilitate the provisioning of clusters within an enterprise. The benefit is a reduction in planned outage time required for cluster upgrades which assists in meeting availability service levels. This also makes it easier to provide a standard installation across the enterprise.
OUI Support for Out-of-Place Oracle Clusterware Upgrade
Server Control (SRVCTL) Enhancements
The server control (SRVCTL) commands have been enhanced to manage the configuration in a standalone server with Oracle Restart as well as the new style of cluster management (Policy-Based Cluster and Capacity Management). This feature provides easier management of Oracle Database through a consistent interface which can be used from the console or scripted.
Server Control (SRVCTL) Enhancements to Support Grid Plug and Play
SRVCTL Support for Single-Instance Database in a Cluster
Using SRVCTL, you can register a single-instance database to be managed by Oracle Clusterware. Once registered, Oracle Clusterware starts, stops, monitors, and restarts the database instance. This feature provides an improved management interface which makes it easy to provide higher availability for single-instance databases that are running on a server that is part of a cluster.
Universal Connection Pool (UCP) Integration with Oracle Data Guard
This feature provides increased availability for Java applications using UCP with Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard. Applications can easily mask failures to the end user.
UCP Integration With Oracle Real Application Clusters
This feature provides a robust connection pool for Java applications with improved throughput and fast failover in an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment.
Universal Connection Pool (UCP) for JDBC
Universal Connection Pool for JDBC supersedes Implicit Connection Cache and provides the following functions: Connection labeling, connection harvesting, logging, and statistics Performance and stabilization enhancements Improved diagnostics and statistics or metrics UCP for JDBC provides advanced connection pooling functions, improved performance, and better diagnosability of connection issues.
Java API for Oracle RAC FAN High Availability Events
A new Java API allows Oracle RAC customers who are not using an Oracle connection pool to receive Fast Application Notification (FAN) events and then process these events, clean up or add connections when an instance, service or node leaves or joins the cluster. Applications using this API can be notified quickly when a failure occurs in the cluster.
188.8.131.52 Support Hybrid Columnar Compression on Pillar Axiom and Sun ZFSSA Support for SHA-2 Certificate Signatures With this new feature, the database can handle SHA-2 (256 bit) signed certificates in addition to older SHA-1 signed certificates. TDE Hardware Acceleration for Solaris Support for Multiple Certificates on Smart Card Oracle has supported card-based authentication to the database and, starting with release 184.108.40.206, can now handle situations where multiple certificates are contained on the card. The database attempts to intelligently select which certificate to read and, if it cannot figure out which one to read, a selection box pops up on the Windows client machine. QoS Management Support for Oracle RAC Enterprise Edition QoS Management Support for Instance Caging on Oracle Exadata Oracle ACFS Snapshot Enhancements Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption Features Support for ACFS Replication and Tagging on Windows Oracle LogMiner Support for Binary XML SQL Apply Support for Binary XML Oracle LogMiner Support for Object Relational Model Deprecation of Obsolete Oracle XML DB Functions and Packages Oracle Warehouse Builder Support for Partition DML Enhanced Partitioning Support in Oracle Warehouse Builder Oracle Warehouse Builder External Table Data Pump Support Oracle Warehouse Builder External Table Preprocessor Support Compressed Table and Partition Support in Oracle Warehouse Builder Support for PL/SQL Native Compilation Grid Infrastructure 220.127.116.11 Installation or Upgrade may fail due to Multicasting Requirement [ID 1212703.1] Behavior Change against 18.104.22.168 With 22.214.171.124 GI was enhanced to utilize broadcast or multicast to bootstrap. For those private interconnect networks who allow multicast on either 126.96.36.199 or 188.8.131.52, multicast will be used for bootstrap. For those private interconnect networks not supporting multicast, broadcast will be used for bootstrap. There are no patches or configuration changes necessary for this functionality in 184.108.40.206, it is provided out of the box.
220.127.116.11 Oracle Data Redaction This new database security feature is part of Oracle Advanced Security and prevents data columns (such as credit card numbers, U.S. Social Security numbers, and other sensitive or regulated data) from being displayed by applications Trace File Analyzer and Collector a diagnostic collection utility to simplify diagnostic data collection on Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC systems. RACcheck - The Oracle RAC Configuration Audit Tool RACcheck is designed to audit vital configuration settings for the Oracle Database, single instance databases, as well as Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) databases. It also includes checks for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) and Oracle Grid Infrastructure. RACcheck provides best practices recommedations considering the whole stack, including Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) configurations and is therefore the ideal tool for regular health checks as well as pre- and post-upgrade best practices assessments. Database Replay Support for Database Consolidation Consolidated replay provides the ability to test database performance for database consolidation projects, whether consolidating onto an Oracle database machine or other consolidated infrastructure. Optimization for Flashback Data Archive History Tables When using flashback data archive to track changes on tables, you can now enable optimization of the corresponding history tables using the OPTIMIZE DATA clause when creating or altering a flashback data archive. Desupported Features The following features are desupported in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2): The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is desupported. There is no replacement for this flag. The DES, RC4, and MD5 algorithms are desupported. New PrimaryLostWriteAction Property The new PrimaryLostWriteAction Data Guard broker configuration property determines what action is taken if a standby database detects that a lost write has occurred at the primary database.